Category: article

Using grammatical metaphors, creating an antilibrary, extracting content from subject matter experts, and more

Photo by Element5 Digital on

Welcome to another Monday. Here are a few things I’d like to share from The Editor’s Desk.

Using grammatical metaphors to say more with less

I’m a fan of being efficient with writing. Keep your writing tight (unless you get paid by the word). Vinh To for The Conversation published a post on using grammatical metaphors to say more with less. Grammatical metaphors involve expressing one type of grammatical form (e.g., verbs) in another form (e.g., nouns). Nominalization involves turning verbs, adverbs, and other grammatical forms into nouns. It offers a number of key benefits, including:

  • Shortening sentences.
  • Clearly showing how one thing causes another
  • Connecting ideas and structuring text
  • Formalizing the tone of your writing

Here is one example of using nominalization to shorten text:

  • Before: When humans cut down forests, land becomes exposed and is easily washed away by heavy rain. 
  • After: Deforestation causes soil erosion.

Creating an antilibrary

I enjoy buying and eventually reading books. I keep all the books I’ve read in a library, and what I haven’t read yet is organized in piles next to my bed – I can’t yet bear shelving books I haven’t read yet. However, there is a lot to be said about doing just that. Anne-Laure Le Cunff at Ness Labs wrote an article about building an antilibrary, which is a collection of unread books. It’s not a new concept, as many learned people have built antilibraries over the years. The goal is often to collect books on topics you want to learn about, and having those books at the ready will make it easier to do so. Some might argue that the Internet contains all known information, but there is something to be said about being able to reach out and actually read a book on something you want to learn about.

If you’re a freelance writer, consider accumulating an antilibrary of books on writing, marketing, and topics in your niche. When you want to do research or get a different perspective on writing, you can just reach out for one of your unread books.

Quote: When an author mentions another book, check the exact reference and make a note of it. By doing so, you will have a list of all the relevant sources for a book when you are done reading it. Then, research this constellation of books. It is unlikely all the sources on the list will seem interesting to you. Sometimes, only a short passage of the source was relevant to the book you just read. But other times, you will discover a book that genuinely piques your curiosity. Add this book to your antilibrary.

Extracting content from subject matter experts

Have you ever interviewed a subject matter expert who is not the greatest at sharing their knowledge with you in a way that makes sense? For various reasons, it can be difficult to do so. I know I’ve been challenged to get answers out of experts when deadlines are looming. Mindy Zissman at MarketingProfs wrote an article about six ways to extract content from subject matter experts. Her tips include:

  • Booking an Abstract Day (a scheduled date and time to ask questions and get content ideas)
  • Reuse one of their presentations
  • Jump on one of their scheduled client calls
  • Do background research before talking to the expert
  • Ask the expert to record their answers
  • Do a writing workshop lunch and learn

Creating a landing page

There is a lot of information on landing pages to be found online. For those who don’t know, a landing page is a page on your website (or on its own) where you offer something interesting and valuable (e.g., white paper, ebook, newsletter) to visitors in exchange for their email address. CJ Chilvers wrote an interesting post on lessons learned about writing landing pages, which are described briefly below:

  • Remember the basics of what the landing page is about
  • Focus on benefits over features
  • Think in 5 second intervals of what is being read
  • Focus on one action you want from the visitor
  • Everything is a trade-off – something you add / leave out will drive visitors away
  • Every page on your website is a landing page
  • Focus on customers first
  • Test everything
  • Be diplomatic with other members of your team

Creating a marketing plan for your small business

A marketing plan will help you to know more about your customers and how to reach them so they business with you. Matt Gladstone at Flocksy wrote a great article on marketing plan tips for small businesses. He suggested the following five steps for creating your own marketing plan:

  • Create and focus on your goals and objectives
  • Define your target audience
  • Do your research
  • Effectively and efficiently execute your plan
  • Plan a timeline and budget

Check out my blog posts on creating a marketing plan:

Thoughts on writing

Morgan Housel, a partner at Collaborative Fund, wrote a few of his thoughts on writing. This one stood out to me:

Good ideas are easy to write, bad ideas are hard. Difficulty is a quality signal, and writer’s block usually indicates more about your ideas than your writing.

What I wrote

Here’s an article I wrote for Digital Privacy News: Saskatchewan Law Against Domestic Violence Raises Privacy Concerns.

What I read

Here’s a great quote I read from Barbara Tuchman (source: The Book, Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 2 (Nov. 1980)) on the power of books:

“Books are the carriers of civilization. Without books, history is silent, literature dumb, science crippled, thought and speculation at a standstill. Without books, the development of civilization would have been impossible. They are engines of change (as the poet said), windows on the world and lighthouses erected in the sea of time. They are companions, teachers, magicians, bankers of the treasures of the mind. Books are humanity in print.”

What I watched

I’ve just finished watching the first season of Neil Gaiman’s American Gods. I read the book (and recommend it) many years ago, so I was pleasantly surprised by how much I did not remember about the story. I was able to enjoy it with fresh eyes, and I’m looking forward to watching season 2. And with season 3 here, I can catch up and watch it in “real time” instead of binging.

What I listened to

I watched this short clip of an interview between Polina Marinova Pompliano and James Clear on how to optimize your content diet.

Thanks for reading. If you liked what I wrote or think someone else would enjoy it, then please share it. And if you want to reach out, my email is


How to arrange and conduct a successful interview

Photo by Magda Ehlers on

Since I write magazine articles and blog posts, I occasionally have to do interviews with business owners and experts. I’m an introvert, so I’m happy to get away with email interviews. But, sometimes it’s better to do a phone or Zoom interview, or there’s no choice but to actually talk to the person.

There are a lot of great books, websites, blogs, etc. with information on conducting interviews. Here are some strategies I’ve followed for conducting a successful interview.

  1. When reaching out, state your name, referral contact, and the reason for the interview.
    • Explain that you won’t take too much of their time.
    • Flatter the interviewee with sincere praise.
    • Explain the importance of doing the interview.
    • Leverage your time with whatever authority you have.
  2. Let the interviewee select the best date and time – give them some options that would work for you as well.
  3. Arrange the interview with a lot of lead time.
  4. Be prepared! Do your homework to set questions.
  5. Be on time.
  6. Write down key facts – record the interview at the same time so you can go over it later.
  7. Establish rapport with the interviewee.
    • Ask questions about them, put them at ease.
    • Show interest in their answers.
  8. Record the names of the subjects, and make sure to get correct spelling and facts.
  9. Show appreciation for their time – thank them and send them a copy of the article or blog post when done.

Additional tips: Eight ways to get more out of interviews

I hope that helps you get more out of doing interviews. If you need help with your writing, let me know –


How to write a great conclusion to your article or blog post

Photo by Ann H on

A lot has been written about the importance of writing strong titles and headlines, as well as a powerful introduction, to attract people to read your article or blog post. Of course, it’s important to start strong to pull the reader into your content. But what about the conclusion?

It’s important to write a satisfying conclusion for your article or blog post. And I don’t mean the call to action. The conclusion wraps up your point and answers the question “So what?” for the reader. It’s pretty disappointing to read a great book or watch a great TV show that ends poorly – it’s almost like the rest of what you read or watched didn’t matter.

Nicholas Labonté from Craft Your Content wrote a great blog post on three steps to writing a satisfying conclusion. In a nutshell, to write a great conclusion:

  • Restate the thesis of your article or blog post to back up your main premise.
  • Synthesize (don’t summarize) your main points by breaking them down to explain the why behind them.
  • Open the reader to the possibilities that can extend from your thesis and main points, and broadens their horizons.

You can practice writing conclusions by paraphrasing what you’ve written in your article or blog post. This involves rewriting passages using different words to make the meaning clearer to your reader. It can involve providing more details to clarify the original meaning of the content. The paraphrased content should still contain the original thoughts and ideas, and make any “hidden” or “suppressed” meanings more explicit. 

Do you need help with writing a conclusion to your article or blog post? Let me know –


An incomplete list of writing tips for freelance content writers and copywriters

Photo by Markus Winkler on

There are bookshelves and websites filled with strategies on how to write better, faster, clearer, more compelling copy. I came across a few writing tips I wanted to share here because they are quick and easy to digest.

Writing tips that seem wrong but work

There are many “hard” rules for writing grammatically correct content. There are other rules for writing great ad copy, or great articles, or great blog posts. These writing tips might seem wrong, but can work when used properly. Try them out.

  • Begin sentences with a conjunction (but, or, and)
  • End your sentence with a preposition (of, with, for)
  • Use sentence fragments
  • Write one-sentence paragraphs
  • Use graphic techniques (sparingly) to emphasize words – bold, underline, capitals, italics, colours, arrows
  • Use bullets in the middle of your copy

The writer’s checklist

When you’ve finished writing your first draft, ask yourself:

  • Does the copy fulfill the promise of the headline?
  • Is the copy interesting?
  • Is it easy to read?
  • It it believable?
  • Is it persuasive?
  • Is it specific?
  • Is it concise?
  • Is it relevant to the reader?
  • Does the copy flow smoothly?
  • Does it contain a call to action?

40 one-sentence writing tips

This list of writing tips comes from Josh Spector. It’s a collection of lessons he has learned over the years that can help you get the most out of the next thing you write.

Writing lessons for the beginning writer

We’ve all been beginning writers – even Stephen King and Neil Gaiman, who make everything sound great. When we look back on our writing careers, there’s a lot we wished we knew when we started. This article on eight writing lessons explains what Naomi Pham from Craft Your Content wishes she knew as a beginner blog writer – it’s good stuff. These tips can help you to write more productively, overcome self-doubt, and love your writing.

Writing better email copy

I’ve written a million emails in my life, and I do a lot of email prospecting. Here’s a good list of six email copy characteristics that will help you write your next email.

Have any writing tips? Need help with your writing? Let me know –


Think about your audience before writing that article or blog post

six men headbust collection
Photo by Keegan Everitt on

Your audience is composed of individuals who have a wide range of interests and knowledge. However, for the purpose of your writing, you can place them into two basic categories:

  • Specialists (e.g., CEOs, industry professionals) who have a deep (or technical) understanding of your topic, as well as the language
  • Generalists (e.g., end users, general public) with a wide range of knowledge and experience, but not a deep understanding of the topic or language

Both groups should be interested in the main subject of your writing. But they will have different goals when reading your writing.

  • Specialists do not need a lot of basic information or an introduction to the topic. They might prefer a high-level technical description, supporting facts and arguments, and a higher level discussion of the subject matter.
  • Generalists want the background information, clear explanations of features and benefits, and definitions or descriptions of technical language or specific terms. They want to understand the subject and how it appeals to them.

Establishing your audience will guide the tone and attitude of your writing. Your writing must respect your audience’s level of knowledge and experience. You can develop appropriate examples and case studies that will speak to that audience. Avoid writing for both audiences at the same time (where possible) as you will not be able to meet both groups’ needs.

Ask the right questions to define your audience

To help evaluate your audience, answer the following questions:

  • What does the audience know about the topic?
  • What is the audience’s attitude toward the topic?
  • Does the audience have interest in the topic, and why or why not?
  • Why is the audience reading about this topic?
  • What level of supporting information does the audience need to accept your position on the topic?

Knowing your audience will help to guide your writing and speak to them more effectively. If you can focus it even more to specific groups within the large group, so much the better. Understand and respect your audience in your writing, and you will achieve a greater response from your audience.

Need help with writing for your audience? Let me know –

How to write effective opening, closing, and connecting paragraphs for blogs, articles, and letters

alphabet bar blue bright
Photo by Pixabay on

In a previous blog post, I wrote about writing different types of paragraphs for your blog, article or letter. Whether you’re writing a blog, article or marketing letter, you will always have to write three types of paragraphs, each of which has different purposes: the opening paragraph, the closing paragraph, and the connecting paragraphs. Make effective use of each type to get the most out of your writing and compel your audience to read all the way through your document.

Opening paragraph

This paragraph serves as your map – it guides you (the writer) and the reader through the rest of the document. The topic sentence in the opening paragraph sets the foundation to guide your writing. The rest of the sentences in the opening paragraph should support the topic sentence.

Your opening paragraph should also interest the reader so that they will continue reading. It needs a hook to spark interest – it can be a quote, an illustration, an interesting statistic or an example. Whatever the hook, it must pull the reader in and make them want to read more.

Closing paragraph

This paragraph enables you to restate the main idea. It repeats what was stated in the opening paragraph in a different way. The supporting sentences should also support the topic sentence, using different yet effective wording.

You should also include a call to action. You want the reader to do something when they’ve finished reading – contact you, sign up for a newsletter, visit a website, download an ebook, etc. The reader has made it all the way through your document, and they are presumably interested in what you have to say. Tell them what to do next.

Connecting paragraphs

These paragraphs serve several purposes:

  • They support the topic sentence and opening paragraph.
  • They allow you to transition between different points so that they are not jumbled into one large mass of text.
  • They do the heavy lifting. You can’t state your entire case in the opening paragraph, so they provide the details to fill in the gaps.
  • They make your case. You intrigued the reader with the opening paragraph, and now you have to prove why they were right to keep reading.

Each connecting paragraph should focus on a central theme with its own topic sentence, but it should be connected to the topic sentence in the opening paragraph. Organize your writing properly to get the greatest impact. Use paragraphs like the tools that they were meant to be.


Do you need help with writing better paragraphs? Let me know –

David Gargaro

Ten tips on publishing your own newsletter

gray laptop computer near journals
Photo by Negative Space on

When I worked at a small publishing company, I wrote a weekly newsletter called Cram This! I used the newsletter to promote the company to our customers, discuss new and existing titles, provide useful information found in our titles, entice people with special offers, and more. It was quite popular and effective during its time.

I’ve written, edited and subscribed to enough newsletters over the years to understand how useful they are in building a brand and a business. Newsletters are great for educating and informing your current clients, and attracting new clients by establishing yourself as an expert in your field. I’ve thought about writing a newsletter to do the same with my current business. However, I current write LinkedIn posts and tweet, and am not sure how a newsletter would significantly differ. It would also require more time away from my business and other activities. Still, I am seriously considering developing a newsletter to help grow and promote my business – but it has to be useful, interesting, entertaining, and different.

Do you want to put out your own newsletter? Then consider the following tips for making it more effective for your business:

  1. Always provide contact information so that readers can contact you for more details about you and your business. Provide links to your website, email address, social media pages, phone numbers and so on.
  2. Write in a personal style so that they feel like you are speaking just to them. Or find a style that works best for you.
  3. Make sure that the headline is clear and powerful. The headline pulls the reader in – the content keeps them there.
  4. Keep individual stories to less than half a page. Provide links for additional content.
  5. Ensure that your newsletter contains useful information, not strictly advertising or promotional material for your business.
  6. Remember that the goal for your newsletter is to attract new business while also building your image. Everything in your newsletter should build upon that.
  7. Create a plan for your newsletter, where you know what you will be writing for the next few issues. Publish an editorial calendar if possible so that your readers know what to expect in coming issues.
  8. Publish regularly – whether it’s daily, weekly, monthly or quarterly, keep it regular so that your readers know when they will get the next issue.
  9. It can be difficult to come up with new and interesting ideas for each issue of your newsletter. Consider the following sources:
    – Press releases related to your industry
    – Clippings of your work in other publications
    – Free and pay clipping services
    – Academic publications
    – Library
    – Filler services with prewritten material
    – Government publications (mostly free, reusable content!)
    – Trade magazines
    – Online resources (via search engines and meta-engines)
    – Customers and employees
    – Experts
  10. What should you include as regular features in your newsletter? Consider the following suggestions:
    – Case studies related to how your clients used your services to improve their business
    – Contributions from readers and clients
    – Articles on new products and services related to your industry
    – Quizzes and self-analysis sheets
    – Interviews with experts
    – Short tips and top ten lists
    – Summaries of materials from other sources
    – Quotes, jokes, trivia, etc.

Need help with writing or editing your newsletter? Let me know –

David Gargaro

Top 10 criteria for editing articles and documents

assorted doctors tools
Photo by on

I found some great editing advice in The Elements of Editing: A Modern Guide for Editors and Journalists by Arthur Plotnik. It’s called “Criteria for Evaluating Manuscripts.” It’s a list of criteria that editors can use to evaluate manuscripts. It can also be used to score a manuscript out of 100 (as a teacher or editor would do), and functions as a scorecard for the writer to evaluate his or her own writing.

The criteria are divided into three categories:

  • Content
  • Readability
  • Impact

I’ve modified the criteria so that it can apply to articles and business writing.


1. Information: It delivers a body of facts, uses authoritative resources, involves competent and original research methods, and supports opinion with information.

2. Analysis and interpretation: Facts are properly organized and evaluated. Concepts embody facts and reflect the author’s voice. Difficult concepts are understandable and thoughtful interpretation leads to specific viewpoint. Content imparts both knowledge and information.

3. Balance: Opinions are separate from fact, other opinions or viewpoints are presented or acknowledged, and the reader can fairly judge the information’s readability.

4. Originality: Content is innovative and insightful, and it shows awareness of previous viewpoints on the subject.


5. Appeal: Writing is inviting, and motivates the reader to continue reading. It sustains interest throughout, and there is momentum to continue reading through organization of interesting facts and concepts.

6. Concreteness and clarity: Writing emphasizes concrete over abstract concepts, avoids jargon and gets to the point. Point of view is clearly stated, it invites discussion and reads with clarity.

7. Colour and tone: Voice is intelligent and conversational, and uses active voice whenever possible. Writing uses examples, anecdotes and contrast where applicable. Writing avoids elements that can impede flow of information and ideas.


8. Enlightenment: Writing informs but does not preach. Content provides new channels of understanding and offers clear benefits from reading.

9. Force: Writing is authoritative and persuasive, is solidified by intensity of conviction and logic, and is based on modern ideas with long-lasting impact.

10. Relevance: Content is current and applicable to reader’s interests, while also extending or challenging those interests.


Remember – content, readability and impact are the keys to powerful writing, and helping you to edit writing to make it more powerful.

Do you need help with editing your articles and documents? Let me know –

David Gargaro

How to write better articles

Photo by Suzy Hazelwood on

I came across an article in The Writer’s Digest Guide to Good Writing called “Take Five: The Most Common Mistakes Among Beginning Freelancers,” which was written by M.L. Stein in 1976. The article outlines five common mistakes made by new writers when pitching and writing articles for magazines.

Follow these five tips to improve your article writing. You can also apply these tips to other types of writing.

  1. Leave your backyard: While you can write about your personal experiences, you cannot JUST write about your personal experiences. To be successful, you will have to talk to other people to get the facts on the topic you are writing about. You (and your friends and family) might be good sources of information, but they cannot be your only sources. You will have to talk to other people, which will improve your interviewing skills and make you a better writer.
  2. Writing about a subject, not an idea: Many writers pick very general topics to write about, and the article has no real angle. To make your article more interesting, start with an idea, then work your way down to a specific point of view within that idea that is current or interesting. Break the idea down, and talk to people who may have a particular interest in specific elements of the idea.
  3. Get the facts: Good articles need more than solid writing – they need facts. Most writers are not authorities on the topics they write about, and even when they know a lot, they still need to get their facts straight. Check your facts through interviews, observation, online research, etc. Include facts in your articles, and not just opinion or belief.
  4. Add anecdotes: Almost every article can benefit from anecdotes. These stories add a dimension of human interest by revealing an individual’s character, difficulties and triumphs. They also add credibility to your article. Use a real-life example of how something happened as described in your article to add that element of reality to your article. Remember – anecdotes come from the people you interview, which is another reason to actually talk to other people.
  5. Write with life and clarity: Articles are not essays – you need more than just the facts delivered with good writing. The article has to be interesting to read. Articles are defined by a writer’s particular style. Editors enjoy reading articles that are lively, interesting, and contemporary, as that is what will appeal to their readers. Read other articles to get a better understanding of different writing styles, and then develop your own style that will interest readers.

Do you have any tips on writing better articles? Let me know – I’d love to hear from other people and benefit from your experience. Send me an email – contact @

David Gargaro

Eight types of how-to articles

adult book business cactus
Photo by on

I came across an interesting article in The Writer’s Digest Guide to Good Writing. It’s called “Eight Types of How-to Articles and How to Write Them” by Hugh C. Sherwood, written in 1970. As the title suggests, the article is about writing how-to articles, which are very popular as far as a style of article. The how-to article describes a topic to the reader, and explains what the reader should learn from the article. It provides advice as well as information.

Eight Types of How-To Articles

  1. The pure how-to article: This is the most basic form of how-to article. It provides specific rules or advice on how to accomplish a particular task. It starts with the title (e.g., How to Write a How-to Article) and is supported by basic steps toward accomplishing the task.
  2. The narrative how-to article: This article uses a story format to describe how a company did something that relates to the title or main point of the article (e.g., How David Gargaro Wrote His First How-to Article). It concludes with how a reader can do what that company did.
  3. The various ways how-to article: This article describes a number of different ways to accomplish a specific goal (e.g., Eight Ways to Write a How-To Article). It provides the reader with different ways to accomplish a task.
  4. The questions-to-ask how-to article: This article provides a number of questions to ask about the central problem described in the article (e.g., Questions to Ask When Researching a How-to Article). It then provides comments on each of the questions.
  5. The pitfalls-to-avoid how-to article: This article uses real-life examples to explain how pitfalls can interfere with the reader dealing with the central problem of the article (e.g., Eight Traps to Avoid When Writing a How-to Article).
  6. The question-answer how-to article: This article poses a number of questions and provides answers that result in a how-to format in solving a particular problem. It is very effective when interviewing an expert on a topic, as the answers provide the how-to accomplish a goal (e.g., An Interview with David Gargaro on Writing How-to Articles).
  7. The do not do this how-to article: This article describes what to avoid when solving a particular problem (e.g., Five Things You Should Never Do When Writing a How-to Article). It also includes tips on what the reader should do to accomplish the task.
  8. The checklist how-to article: This article provides a checklist of questions to ask, or points to consider, about the central problem (e.g., Six Things to Consider When Writing a How-to Article).

Which type of how-to article do you enjoy reading? Do you need help with writing a how-to article? Let me know – contact @

David Gargaro